There is indeed considerable confusion for many regarding turtle’s vision. Some think turtles can see all colors like most humans, whereas some consider them colorblind. So what is the actual answer? Are turtles colorblind or not?
Well, the answer to this question, in short, is that turtles are not colorblind. They can see colors, but the difference is that they can see colors vividly. Their color vision is not as brilliant and sharp as humans. A few scientists also believe that turtles similarly see colors to humans who are color blind. Additionally, turtles have CYP2J19, which is a gene-encoded enzyme. This gene helps turtles distinguish shades of red that tend to be invisible to the human eye.
It is also known that turtles don’t like the color black as it associates them with predators such as birds and snakes.
Are Turtles Colorblind? How Do Turtles See Color?
Similar to other animals, turtles have cones in their eyes that allow them to see colors and various wavelengths of light.
Now, you must remember that there are different types of turtles, and not all have the same number of cones. The type and number of cones in the eyes of a turtle will differ.
Let us take an example of a box turtle. Box turtles are said to have fewer cones and are sensitive to specific wavelengths of light. Since there are fewer cones in their eyes, it can be hard for them to see and recognize particular colors.
What Colors Can Turtles See?
Turtles have tetrachromatic color vision. This means that the cones in the eyes can recognize blue, green, orange, yellow, violet, red, and other colors.
Some turtles, such as the red-eared slider, have limited ability to recognize red wavelengths of light.
You must also know that turtles have the ability to see and recognize more shades of red than other mammals, including humans.
Now, let us dive a little deeper into the topic.
Let us talk about sea turtles to understand better how well they can see colors underwater.
Since the time of dinosaurs, turtle eyes have developed to see underwater and on land.
This means that turtles have advanced ultraviolet vision. This vision is more advanced than other fishes and helps turtles detect their prey underwater.
When we talk about advanced vision, it means that turtles can see UVB and UVA lights from a wavelength of 300 nm to 370 nm. UVB lights help turtles become superior underwater and catch their prey without fail. When we compare this to fishes, they have only UVA vision.
Comparing Them to Humans
When we compare it to humans, turtles can see colors from a wavelength of 300 nm to 370 nm, as mentioned before, and 400 nm to 740 nm. Humans can only perceive a visible spectrum from 400 to 720 nm approximately.
Additionally, turtles have a gene called CYP2J19. This is a red gene that helps turtles see and recognize different shades of red, which humans can not do.
This gene is believed to be inherited from a creature called archosaur, a 250 million-year-old species.
This gene also helps turtles see more yellow and orange hues along with red. This means that turtles can navigate very well on land and water easily.
What Colors Do Turtles Like and Dislike?
We all have our favorite colors and a few ones we do not like. Just like us, even turtles have preferences. They like a few colors and dislike a few.
Colors Turtles Like
Turtles are species of land and water. This can make you think that they are only attracted to colors such as blue and green, but that is partially true. Turtles have a wide range of colors they like depending on their species.
Let us take an example of a red-eared slider. This type of turtle is attracted to colors such as orange, red, and yellow. Now, on the other hand, painted turtles like subtle colors such as white and blue.
So, it is hard to specify specific colors for all types of turtles. It depends on each type.
Colors Turtles Dislike
Again, depending on the species, the colors will vary. That being said, one thing is common among all turtles.
Turtles do not like extremely bright colors. Also, they do not like colors that are associated with their predators. For example, if their predator is in red or orange color. They would move away from objects or places that are in those shades.
Additionally, many turtle owners mentioned that their turtles hide or walk away from colors that are in neon shades (pink), dark red, and very dark colors.
If you are a turtle owner, you will be able to recognize the colors your turtle likes and dislikes based on its behavior.
Can Turtles See in the Dark?
Let us begin with knowing that turtles can not see in complete darkness.
That said, when it is not pitch black, turtles can see but not very well. Turtles do not have tapetum lucidum, a thin, light reflective membrane; they do not have too many rods in their eyes like night animals to help them navigate through the dark.
When it comes to vision at night, turtles are similar to humans. Just like humans, they can only recognize objects in shades of black in the dark. Turtle’s vision is similar to humans, but they have ultraviolet light and extra colors.
For example, if you place an object or scenery in the dark in front of a turtle and a human. Turtles and humans will see the same object and scenery in a similar manner, but turtles will see it with more red colors because of the CYP2J19 gene.
Overall, they are a little similar when we compare human’s and turtle’s night vision. Like us, even turtles take a few minutes to adjust their eyesight at night. Turtle’s eyes have been evolving and enhancing since the Permian period to find their way in the dark. Turtles can see things to a certain extent in the dark and have the ability to sense ultraviolet glow.
How Do Turtles See Humans?
If you are wondering how turtles see us and what we look like to them, then you must know that turtles can adequately see and recognize humans based on our physical appearances. They try to remember your shape and size to identify you as their owner.
Additionally, with the help of the CYP2J19 gene, turtles can see humans in shades of yellow, red, and orange. Also, they can even notice humans underwater from a distance.
A healthy adult turtle can see the same vision as us and recognize humans with more shades of red.
Turtles are not colorblind. Turtles can see colors and shades of red due to the gene CYP2J19. If you have a turtle, you can experiment to see what colors your turtle likes and dislikes to understand your turtle better.
Overall, turtles can see colors on land and water, making it easy to catch their prey. Also, they have advanced underwater vision, which makes them superior to other fishes.